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under monastic administration, but the teachers were still drawn
from the secular clergy and not from the monasteries. The
greatest change is perhaps to be seen in the secular cathedrals.
There the advance of specialization in theology had resulted in
the differentiation of grammar studies from the higher studies
previously associated with them, and in the addition of a school of
theology to the existing schools of grammar and song. At the
same time, a definite separation of the functions of schoolmaster
and chapter lawyer had become general. The scholasticus of for-
mer days had grown in dignity and was now the chancellor, one
of the four chief officers of the cathedral. His place in the gram-
mar school had been taken by the grammar-school master, who
was generally a master of arts. He himself no longer did any
teaching except in the theological school of which by his office he
was head ; but he exercised a general control of all education in
his district through his power to give or with-hold the licence with-
out which no teaching of any kind could be done.

But the schools in cathedrals and collegiate churches were no
longer sufficient for the educational needs of the community. So
widespread was the desire for learning that, as we have seen,
there was a school in nearly every town of any size. These new
schools were of diverse origin. Thus, in England we find in
addition to the older schools at least four different types : (i)
Later Collegiate Schools. Such schools were established in great
numbers from the middle of the Thirteenth Century up till the
Reformation. In the earliest of them, as in the previous collegiate
schools, educational work was subordinate in importance to the
services of the churches with which they were connected, but the
foundation of Winchester College by William of Wykeham in
1382, expressly for the education of boys, marked the same
reversal of values as we have already noted in the case of the
university colleges. In most subsequent foundations of a similar
kind, notable among which was Eton (1440), it was education and
not religious service that was the prime concern, (z) Schools con-
nected with Hospitals. These were in the first instance schools for
the poor children who formed a section of the inmates of certain
endowed " hospitals " or almshouses. The most famous of them
was Christ's Hospital, London, the Blue Coat School, founded in
1553, according to Mr. A. F. Leach, " the only educational institu-
tion really founded by Edward VL" (3) Gild Schools. Most of